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The sun (also known as Magnus, Daibethe in Yoku, and Vakka in Jel) is the common term for the largest tear in reality between the Mundus and Aetherius, and appears as a bright orb in the skies of Nirn. It is the main source of magicka in the world which flows constantly from Aetherius.
Moons are astronomical objects within Mundus. They are said to be small planets, though this comparison is only defined by mortal comprehension, as they are truly infinite. Members of the Mages Guild described them as islands in the sky.
Planets are astronomical bodies.
Altmer myths claim that stars were created by the Magna Ge, Anuic spirits that fled Creation after the departure of its architect, the god Magnus, who made the world. Magnus himself left the greatest tear in the firmament: the Sun, sometimes named Magnus. The stars are therefore sometimes referred to as the "children of Magnus". One Aldmeri myth claims the stars were instead created from the blood of Anu. Some believe that stars are "fragments" of Magnus.
Constellations (known as Sky Tales to the Reachmen) are collections of stars and other astronomical objects which appear in the night sky which form a perceived pattern. The constellation that is in the night sky at the time of year of a person's birth is called their birthsign (also spelled birth sign) or star sign and is believed to influence their characteristics and fate. Those born under certain constellations are said to be 'fortunate in their aspects'. Such people are often blessed or cursed with remarkable abilities or weaknesses as a result of the magical conjunctions of celestial influences.
There are generally accepted to be thirteen constellations in the sky, sometimes called the Thirteen Patrons. There are three guardian constellations, known to the Reachmen as the Reach Guardians and the Guardians in the Sky: the Warrior, the Mage, and the Thief, each associated with three other constellations, called their charges (known as the Lesser Stars to the Reachfolk). Each of these twelve constellations corresponds to one of the twelve months of the year. The thirteenth sign, the Serpent, is neither guardian nor charge.
The aurora (also known as Kyne's lights) is a phenomenon occurring in the night sky characterized by vivid ribbons of light. It occurs when the skies are clear. Similar phenomena occur in realms of Oblivion, and Aetherius.
The Bloodmoon is a phenomenon occurring when Hircine's Great Hunt is hosted on Nirn. During the Great Hunt, Secunda turns a deep shade of red and becomes the Bloodmoon. The hunt is believed to end when the Bloodmoon disappears, and Secunda turning red is considered a calling for the chase. The Bloodmoon occurs naturally in the Hunting Grounds, as the Great Hunts are constantly held there.
Star Maps and OrreriesEdit
Many cultures follow the passage of the stars.
Undoubtedly the most advanced knowledge of the heavens comes via the relics of the Dwemer.
A second place of importance is upon the island of Stros M'Kai where a Dwemer observatory lies. This observatory contains an orrery as well and a star chart upon its ceiling. The star chart displays runes for each constellation in a radial grid, clockwise by their associated month. A guardian and its three charges are all found at the same distance from the center of the galaxy.
The pre-Redguard Yokudan culture in particular was noted for its astrologers, who would make crude sand maps in their camps. These are identical to the Dwemer star charts in their radial configuration of the constellations. The only difference at all is the simplification of guardian runes to outlined squares and charge runes to filled circles.
The Elder ScrollsEdit
Finally, the Elder Scrolls themselves would seem to depict some sort of star map, with various glyphs of unknown purpose adorning both the foreground and background.
Upon careful examination of the particular Elder Scroll depicted here, one can see an outline of The Thief constellation; this is highly appropriate, as this particular Elder Scroll was stolen from the Imperial Palace and used to break the curse on the Cowl of Nocturnal.